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  Rajasthan Travel Guide

Rajasthan History

Rajasthan is a state of Indian Union situated in the north western part. The history of Rajasthan is as old as the Harappan Civilization and dates back to 1000 BC. Some excavated sites bring forth the records of this period. Several ruins and relics found in the region suggest that it was inhabited by Pre-Aryan race. This part of Indian sub continent was also influenced by the Jains and Buddhists and the faiths were spread at large here. In the bygone era Rajasthan has been ruled by different rulers at different periods of time. Some great dynasties that left behind their impressions here include the dynasties of Magadha, Kushana, Maurya(321-184BC) and Gupta(400 AD).

From 6th century onwards Rajputs established their supreme power over this area and under them the region attained its present glory. Rajput rulers established several kingdoms throughout and the area came to be known as Rajputana or the state of Rajputs.

Medieval : During 12th century, a part of Rajasthan came under the Muslim rulers as tributary state but the Rajputs were able to resist the supremacy of Mughals. During 13th century, some of the powerful regions or princely states of Rajasthan were Nagaur, Ajmer and Mewar.

Modern : Under the rule of Akbar, the whole of Rajasthan was a unified province. With the decline of Mughal power in the 18th century, political breakdown of Rajasthan started and a part of Rajasthan came under the control of Marathas. In the mid 18th century, they occupied Ajmer. During early 19th century(1817-1818) independent Rajput kingdoms signed treaties with British Power to eliminate the Maratha threat. Hence, the rule of British over Rajasthan got established.

Post Independence : Prior to independence Rajasthan state comprised of 19 princely states, two small villages ruled by chiefs of Lava and Kushalgarh and a British administrative territory of Ajmer-Merwar. All were ruled by different administrative systems and were disintegrated. After independence, the region has undergone a long process of integration and exists as a state of Indian Union from the year 1956. Under British control the region was popular as Rajputana and after Indian independence it came to be known as Rajasthan.

At present, there are 32 district, 105 sub-division and 241 tehsils. The Rajputana influence is the dominating one, the essence of which can be felt by the monuments located in various cities of the state and the culture prevailing throughout. The magnificent palaces and forts still describe the prosperity and glory of the past.

Religion of Rajasthan : Religion also plays an important role in the history and life of Indian and so on the Rajasthani people. As Rajasthan was the land of Rajputs, the major religion of this part is Hinduism. But later with the advent of Mughals, Islam also extended its wings. Apart from Hindus and Muslims, there are people from Christian, Sikh and Jain community in this vibrant state of Rajasthan.

» Hinduism - Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world and various temples and religious shrines like Pushkar, Desknok and in other parts of Rajasthan show its dominance in Rajasthan. People of Rajasthan practice various traditions, customs, rituals and worship all forms of nature according to Hindu religion.

» Islam - Muslims are the largest minority in India and there are a large number of shrines related to Islam religion. The major ones are at Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti in Ajmer, the tomb of Hamiuddin Nagori at Nagaur are some of the major pilgrimage centres for Muslims.

» Jainism - Propagated by Lord Mahaveer, it is one of the oldest living religion of the world. There are several Jain temples at Ranakpur, Mount Abu, Osian, Jaisalmer and in some other parts of Rajasthan.

Besides, there are a large majority of Sikhs and Christians living in total harmony and brother hood with other communities. This gives a cosmopolitan flavor to Rajasthan.

Geographical facts of Rajasthan : The largest state of Indian Union, Rajasthan covers an area of 3,42,239 sq. km. in the northwestern region of India. It is bounded by Pakistan to the west, Gujarat to the southwest, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast and Punjab to the north. Its main geographical feature includes Thar Desert in the northwestern part and the Aravalli Range runs through southwest to northeast. The mountain range consists of the hill station of Mount Abu and its famous Dilwara Jain temples. Luni River in the southwest part, Ghaggar River in the northern corner and Banas and Chambal rivers and Mahi and Sabaramati rivers in the southern part are the major river systems of Rajasthan.

Climatic Condition in Rajasthan : The climate of Rajasthan include generally four seasons in Rajasthan : Summers, Monsoon, Post-Monsoon and Winters. The summers, which extends from April to June, is the hottest season with temperature rises up to 45 degrees C. The hill station of Mount Abu records the lowest temperature while in the desert region the temperature falls in the night.

During monsoon (July to September), the average maximum temperature varies between 29 and 32 degrees C with high humidity. The state receives an average annual rain fall of 755mm. In the post-monsoon season (October-November), the average maximum temperature is 33 degrees C to 38 degrees C, and the minimum temperature is between 18-20 degrees C.

The winter season extends from December to March and January is the coolest month of the year, when temperature sometimes drops to 0 degrees C in areas like Churu. But generally the maximum & minimum temperature varies from region to region.

(Rajasthan Tarvel Guide : Reservation Form)

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